### A Body in Motion Remains in Motion (Pure Book 1)

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Static & Kinetic Friction, Tension, Normal Force, Inclined Plane & Pulley System Problems - Physics

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### CBSE Class 11 Physics Notes : Rotational Motion – AglaSem Schools

One may compare linear motion to general motion. In general motion, a particle's position and velocity are described by vectors , which have a magnitude and direction. In linear motion, the directions of all the vectors describing the system are equal and constant which means the objects move along the same axis and do not change direction. The analysis of such systems may therefore be simplified by neglecting the direction components of the vectors involved and dealing only with the magnitude.

Neglecting the rotation and other motions of the Earth, an example of linear motion is the ball thrown straight up and falling back straight down. The motion in which all the particles of a body move through the same distance in the same time is called translatory motion. There are two types of translatory motions: rectilinear motion; curvilinear motion.

Since linear motion is a motion in a single dimension, the distance traveled by an object in particular direction is the same as displacement. The displacement of an object cannot be greater than the distance because it is also a distance but the shortest one. Consider a person travelling to work daily.

Overall displacement when he returns home is zero, since the person ends up back where he started, but the distance travelled is clearly not zero.

Velocity refers to a displacement in one direction with respect to an interval of time. It is defined as the rate of change of displacement over change in time. The magnitude of a velocity is called speed. Mathematically, it is given by:  . In contrast to an average velocity, referring to the overall motion in a finite time interval, the instantaneous velocity of an object describes the state of motion at a specific point in time.

Acceleration is defined as the rate of change of velocity with respect to time. Acceleration is the second derivative of displacement i. The rate of change of acceleration, the third derivative of displacement is known as jerk. In the UK jerk is also known as jolt.

The rate of change of jerk, the fourth derivative of displacement is known as jounce. In case of constant acceleration, the four physical quantities acceleration, velocity, time and displacement can be related by using the Equations of motion   .

These relationships can be demonstrated graphically. The gradient of a line on a displacement time graph represents the velocity. The gradient of the velocity time graph gives the acceleration while the area under the velocity time graph gives the displacement. The area under an acceleration time graph gives the change in velocity. Media related to Linear movement at Wikimedia Commons. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

## Download PDF A Body in Motion Remains in Motion (Pure Book 1)

In swimming, a person interacts with the water, pushing the water backward, while the water simultaneously pushes the person forward—both the person and the water push against each other. The reaction forces account for the motion in these examples. These forces depend on friction; a person or car on ice, for example, may be unable to exert the action force to produce the needed reaction force.

Newton used the third law to derive the law of conservation of momentum ;  from a deeper perspective, however, conservation of momentum is the more fundamental idea derived via Noether's theorem from Galilean invariance , and holds in cases where Newton's third law appears to fail, for instance when force fields as well as particles carry momentum, and in quantum mechanics. The ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle had the view that all objects have a natural place in the universe: that heavy objects such as rocks wanted to be at rest on the Earth and that light objects like smoke wanted to be at rest in the sky and the stars wanted to remain in the heavens.

He thought that a body was in its natural state when it was at rest, and for the body to move in a straight line at a constant speed an external agent was needed continually to propel it, otherwise it would stop moving. Galileo Galilei , however, realised that a force is necessary to change the velocity of a body, i.

In other words, Galileo stated that, in the absence of a force, a moving object will continue moving. The tendency of objects to resist changes in motion was what Johannes Kepler had called inertia. This insight was refined by Newton, who made it into his first law, also known as the "law of inertia"—no force means no acceleration, and hence the body will maintain its velocity. As Newton's first law is a restatement of the law of inertia which Galileo had already described, Newton appropriately gave credit to Galileo. Leonardo da Vinci understood that "An object offers as much resistance to the air as the air does to the object".

The law of inertia apparently occurred to several different natural philosophers and scientists independently, including Thomas Hobbes in his Leviathan Newton's laws were verified by experiment and observation for over years, and they are excellent approximations at the scales and speeds of everyday life.

Newton's laws of motion, together with his law of universal gravitation and the mathematical techniques of calculus , provided for the first time a unified quantitative explanation for a wide range of physical phenomena. These three laws hold to a good approximation for macroscopic objects under everyday conditions. However, Newton's laws combined with universal gravitation and classical electrodynamics are inappropriate for use in certain circumstances, most notably at very small scales, at very high speeds, or in very strong gravitational fields.

Therefore, the laws cannot be used to explain phenomena such as conduction of electricity in a semiconductor , optical properties of substances, errors in non-relativistically corrected GPS systems and superconductivity. Explanation of these phenomena requires more sophisticated physical theories, including general relativity and quantum field theory. In quantum mechanics , concepts such as force, momentum, and position are defined by linear operators that operate on the quantum state ; at speeds that are much lower than the speed of light, Newton's laws are just as exact for these operators as they are for classical objects.

In modern physics, the laws of conservation of momentum , energy, and angular momentum are of more general validity than Newton's laws, since they apply to both light and matter, and to both classical and non-classical physics. This can be stated simply, "Momentum, energy and angular momentum cannot be created or destroyed. Because force is the time derivative of momentum, the concept of force is redundant and subordinate to the conservation of momentum, and is not used in fundamental theories e.

The standard model explains in detail how the three fundamental forces known as gauge forces originate out of exchange by virtual particles. Other forces, such as gravity and fermionic degeneracy pressure , also arise from the momentum conservation. Indeed, the conservation of 4-momentum in inertial motion via curved space-time results in what we call gravitational force in general relativity theory.

The application of the space derivative which is a momentum operator in quantum mechanics to the overlapping wave functions of a pair of fermions particles with half-integer spin results in shifts of maxima of compound wavefunction away from each other, which is observable as the "repulsion" of the fermions. Newton stated the third law within a world-view that assumed instantaneous action at a distance between material particles.

However, he was prepared for philosophical criticism of this action at a distance , and it was in this context that he stated the famous phrase " I feign no hypotheses ".